The rule of the Mughal Empire controlled much of South Asia between the 16th and 19th centuries. It all originated with Babur, the first emperor of the Mughal Dynasty. He was born in Uzbekistan city of Andijan on February 14, 1483, with the native tongue of Turkic language and was a strong believer of Islam religion. He was a descendant of the Mongol conqueror Genghis Khan and also of the Turkic conqueror Timur (Tamerlane) from her maternal side. Mughal is originated from Mongol (Mongol is a Persian word) that could be the reason Mughals never liked to be called Mughals. Babur is not his real name, the real name of him was Zahiruddin Muhammad. The Mughal Dynasty began with Babur in 1526 and descendant to Humayun in 1530, this legacy kept enriching king by king and ended with Bahadur Shah Zafar (successor of Akbar) the last emperor of Mughal Dynasty. Let us know more about their reign.
Top 21 Incredible Facts About India’s Mughal Dynasty
1- Babur as a strong military man
He took care of his throne very precisely. In 1497 Zahiruddin Muhammad (Babar) conquered the Uzbek city and in 1511 made a triumphant entry into Samarkand. His attention was towards India in 1525 – he conquered the Lodi dynasty in 1526 and that was the end of Delhi Sultanate.
Babur invaded North India with his advanced weapons even with small troops. It is also said Babur had great power and strength that he swam all rivers into his way from Lahore to Delhi.
The Mughal Dynasty was highly urbanized. In the possession of Akbar, there were 120 cities and 3,200 townships. Agra, Lahore, Delhi, Dhaka were the biggest cities in the Mughal reign.
4- The Koh-i-Noor Diamond
Today in the 21st century, the diamond is part of the Crown Jewels as displayed in London. Shah Jahan incrusted the diamond within his flourished ornate Peacock Throne in his times of throne. Ownership subsequently changed many times and lastly end in the possession of Queen Victoria.
5- Taj Mahal
Taj Mahal is one of the most reliant structures of all time with the high number of tourists. It is one of the best examples of Mughal architecture and is one of seven wonders of the world. Taj Mahal was built by Shah Jahan in the memory of his favorite wife Mumtaz. The white-splendor tomb ornate structure took 20 years to complete.
6- Bollywood Appearance
Over the years, many Bollywood films have depicts the life of Mughals and their rulers. One epic Bollywood release Mughal-e-Azam launched in theatres in 1960.
Beginning from the 16th century, coming to the mid of 18th century Mughal Empire started experiencing many crucial losses. Loss of Burma, ruled under British Raj, ceded territory to the Marathas and more.
8- Bengal Subah
Bengal Subah was the richest province of that time with 12% of the entire world’s GDP.
9- Not basic level art
The Mughal Empire was full of reliant talents, illustrations, miniature, and some awesome collections of paintings.
One of the biographies of that time is Bāburnāma, a journal written by Zahir Uddin Muhammad (Babur). Later, this biography translated from Turkey to Farsi in the Akbar emperor. Another biography – Padshahnama.
11- The largest empire
The Mughal Empire in 1690 reached its peak territory, covering nearly all of the Indian Subcontinent.
12- The most flourished garden
Persian landscaping conventions influenced the architectural features of Mughal gardens.
13- Economic Power
As we all know India was famous in the name of ‘Sone Ki Chidiya’. This is the reason EIC came to India and looted it. Moreover, India ushered many contours with its high GDP and a strong economy.
14- Architectural recognition
The Architecture of the Mughal Dynasty has the most prominent testaments of their great artistic sensibilities.
The official language was Persian, which influenced the language of Urdu – Official language of India and the national language of Pakistan.
16- Pains in the empire
After the victory of Panipat from Ibrahim Lodi, Babur had to battle with Rajputs and to conquer the battle of Khanwa. Humayun was a succession of the throne – but his reign was unstable. Though, Humayun was exiled to Persia for over a decade.
17- Trade of Cuisines
One of the reasons for Portegues, Dutch, Britishers, and Frenches’ businessmen to arrive in India was trading. The trade of Cuisines and other spices like cinnamon and saffron. Tomatoes used to be imported from these countries. That is why East India Company had settled its factories in various parts of the country to sell the cuisines at a 60% higher rate.
18- Cotton Manufacturing
Various kinds of cotton inventions took place in the era of the Mughal Empire like the gear worm cotton gin. Attaching the crank handle to the cotton gin allowed them to export the important fabric all across the world.
Mughal Empire also considers being an Islamic Gunpowder Empire. They managed to be the superior manufacturers of firearms, also leading exporters of saltpeter. They got succeded as a variant use of gunpowder-fueled artillery in the 16th to 19th centuries.
Shisha – hookah or waterpipe. It is supposed that in the 16th century, one of the Emperor Akbar’s doctors developed and invented the smoking hookah with the introduction of tobacco. This had become a popular pastime among the prosperous wealthy people of that time.
The most narrated stories from the Mughal Dynasty is the story of Anarkali. The Anarkali has been used many times in Bollywood, widely spread, and liked song of all time – Anarkali Disco Chali. The story of Anarkali is based on a beautiful girl from rag-to-riches, who used to dance in the reign of the Mughal Empire. She used to be a favorite of Akbar – lately she was buried between two walls as per Akbar order for her transgressions to have an affair with next crown prince Salim.